Sherwood Forest Center Parcs village Case Study
Introduction: Sustainable tourism in forest surroundings and the Center Parcs concept

Case Study Questions

1. What is centre Parc doing to support creation and effective functioning of teams? How well do you think they are managing the processes and what else do you think they could be doing?

2. How can Sherwood Forest Center Parcs village apply the six markets model to achieve an integrated approach to the customer relationship marketing?

Q3 Centre Parks have a safe working practices seminar as part of their initial face-to-face, classroom-based induction programme. They are now introducing a compulsory programme of refresher training using e-Learning. Choose two organisational change models and highlight their strengths and weaknesses in managing the change.

4. Which of the six main approaches to marketing communications have Center Parcs used for their properties? What else could they have used and how can they evaluate the effects of their communication strategies and techniques?

Q5 Describe the Sherwood Forest Center Parcs supply chain for goods and services. Which services do you think they are likely to have outsourced?

Q6 The section ‘Employment in Central Park’ on page 6 explains about the Centre park’s employees’ requirement. Identify 5 costs from this section and classify them into variable, fixed or semi-variable. Give reason for your classification.

Q7 What is Centre Parks doing to support the creation and effective functioning of teams? How well do you think they are managing the processes and what else do you think they could be doing?

Case Study Solutions

1. What is centre Parc doing to support creation and effective functioning of teams? How well do you think they are managing the processes and what else do you think they could be doing?

The Center Parcs provide short breaks in the forest, bringing families together and back to nature with high quality accommodation, a range of outstanding leisure facilities and more than 200 indoor and outdoor activities, all set within a protected and enhanced woodland environment. Each village is set within around 400 acres of natural woodland, with trees, streams and wildlife surrounding apartment and lodge accommodation. At the heart of each village is the Subtropical Swimming Paradise, an extensive range of restaurants, cafés and retail outlets, as well as the Aqua Sana Spa.

Setting up Sherwood Forest began with thinning the forest. Over 500,000 trees and shrubs were planted, and selected grass and wildflower species were sown. A network of lakes and waterways was created to form a key element of the village. Plants and trees introduced to these areas provided a new habitat that has attracted new life forms. This allows guests to relax amongst a variety of native flora and fauna.

It offers a blend of woodland, lakes and wild meadows that create an exquisite environment to explore with friends and family. Nottinghamshire short breaks don’t often feature a beach, but there is a sandy beach in the property in which visitors can relax and soak up the sun.

All accommodation features the essentials you’ll need, such as pots and plates, glasses and cutlery, as well as bed linen and towels. We have free Friendly wifi across the village and there’s hundreds of acres of forest and miles of woodland paths to explore in your own time.

From adrenaline-fuelled challenges to family adventures to indulgent spa days, at Center Parcs there is something to suit everyone, whatever the weather. Each lodge is nestled in its own piece of natural forest, giving you space and seclusion to soak up quality family time.

Constructing the project injected income and generated local jobs. The company spent around £22 million and the local economy benefited by about £12 million from this ‘one off’ expenditure.

• Around 1,000 highly varied jobs have been created on site injecting over £7 million each year in wages and salaries into the local economy.

• Center Parcs’ policy is to purchase locally wherever possible.

• Many Center Parcs’ visitors either visit local businesses on their way to or from the Center Parcs village or visit other attractions outside the village.

• Economists estimate that the existence of Center Parcs has created a further 1,400 jobs over and above the people employed at the centre itself. Because Center Parcs is open all year round, these other jobs are all year round jobs too. The development has avoided the seasonal nature of many jobs associated with tourism and leisure.

2. centre parc have a safe working practices seminar as part of their initial face to faceclassroom based induction program. they are now introducing a compulsory program of refresher training using E learning. Choose two organisational change models and highlight their strength and weaknesses in managing the change.

2. How can Sherwood Forest Center Parcs village apply the six markets model to achieve an integrated approach to the customer relationship marketing?

Relationship marketing can be utilized to develop outright bond between producer and consumer in the business without neglecting others key stakeholder’s relationship. It can also improve competitive advantage and bring the business into success. A model proposed to examine relationship marketing is the six markets model which takes into consideration all stakeholders of business which can play an important role in improving customer relationship in the market. It includes internal markets, supplier markets, recruitment markets, referral markets, influence markets and customer markets.

1. Internal market

It refers to application of marketing internally within the firm. Center parcs can utilise relationship marketing attributes like collaboration, loyalty and trust to determine internal customers’ words and actions. Since an employee, team and department in the company is simultaneously a supplier and a customer of services and products ; they obtain service at a point in the value chain and then provides a service to another employee further along the value chain. If internal marketing will be made effective, every employee who provides and receives exceptional service to and from other employees will understand the significance of their roles and how their roles relate to others’. If implemented well, it can encourage every employee to see the process in terms of the customer’s perception of value and the organization’s strategic mission.

2. Referral Markets

Referral marketing is the development and implementation of a marketing plan in order to stimulate referrals. The referral markets are referred to under various names within different industry sectors, including: intermediaries, connectors, multipliers, third-party markets, agencies, networks and referral sources.  Although it may take months before the effect of referral marketing is noticeable, it is often the most effective part of an overall marketing plan and the most efficient use of resources. Center Parcs can identify present and likely future importance of these referral sources and a specific plan can be developed to determine the appropriate levels of marketing resources that should be devoted to each of them. Centre Parcs can launch a highly focused pilot scheme to determine from where the greatest benefit can be obtained and emphasize the development of relationships with them.

3. Supplier markets:

Marketing to suppliers is aimed at ensuring a long-term conflict-free relationship in which all parties understand the others’ needs and exceed their expectations. There is mounting evidence of a movement from the traditional adversarial relationship between suppliers and their customers towards a new form of relationship based on cooperation. This emphasizes a long term very close relationship and a win-win philosophy rather than the win-lose philosophy inherent in adversarial relationships. Centre park should view suppliers as their collaborators and they should be given recognition to establish greater partnership in the marketing channel between center parc and its suppliers. This new attitude to supplier market and such a strategy can reduce costs and improve quality.

4. Employee markets:

Increasingly, companies are finding strong competition in their efforts to attract a sufficient number of suitably motivated and trained employees into their ranks. Many firms are today learning that the limiting factor to their success is far more predicated on the availability of satisfactorily skilled people to work in their organizations than the availability of other resources such as capital or raw materials. Centre Parc needs to pay attention to this market in order to recruit, build and keep the most professional staff that are able to create sustainable relationships with clients and other business partners.

5. Influence markets:

Influence markets involve a wide range of sub-markets, including government regulators, standards bodies, lobbyists, stockholders, bankers, venture capitalists, financial analysts, stockbrokers, consumer associations, environmental associations and labor associations. These activities are typically carried out by the public relations department, and centre parc can set up public relationship department to maintain good relationships with them so that they can get benefit out of it in terms of needs.

6. Customer markets:

There is no doubt that the primary focus of marketing was and remains on the customer. More recently there has been a changing emphasis in the focus of marketing from transactional marketing that emphasizes the individual sale to relationship marketing which emphasizes long-term lasting relationships. For Centre Parc while keeping a focus on gaining new customers is necessary to the development of all businesses it is also essential to ensure that ongoing marketing activity is directed at existing customers. By placing too much focus on marketing activities directed at new customers, Center Parc can experience the ‘leaking bucket’ effect.

Q3 Centre Parks have a safe working practices seminar as part of their initial face-to-face, classroom-based induction programme. They are now introducing a compulsory programme of refresher training using e-Learning. Choose two organisational change models and highlight their strengths and weaknesses in managing the change.

Lewin’s Change Management Model

This change management model was created in the 1950s by psychologist Kurt Lewin. Lewin noted that the majority of people tend to prefer and operate within certain zones of safety. He recognized three stages of change:

1. Unfreeze – Most people make an active effort to resist change. In order to overcome this tendency, a period of thawing or unfreezing must be initiated through motivation.

2. Transition – Once change is initiated, the company moves into a transition period, which may last for some time. Adequate leadership and reassurance is necessary for the process to be successful.

3. Refreeze – After change has been accepted and successfully implemented, the company becomes stable again, and staff refreezes as they operate under the new guidelines.

While this change management model remains widely used today, it is takes time to implement. Of course, since it is easy to use, most companies tend to prefer this model to enact major changes.

Strengths:

The Lewin’s Change Management Model is easy to understand and provides visual language that excellently displays the actions leaders should take. This also allows leaders to think past quantitative analysis, and take into account qualitative means of working through change.

Weakness:

Lewin´s model is very rational, goal and plan oriented. The change looks good on paper, as it makes rational sense, but when implemented the lack of considering human feelings and experiences can have negative consequences. This model does not discuss ways that leaders can deal with people who are resistant to changes and are reluctant to change their positioning. It assumes that through enough motivation and encouragement everyone will come around, and this is not always the case. This model is rational and sounds great, but implementation may not mirror this, and it does not list ways to overcome that.

2. The McKinsey 7S Model

The McKinsey model was created in the 1980s by consultants who worked for McKinsey and Company. This model emphasizes the importance of leaders assessing every component of their organization before jumping into the action of change. It is characterized by seven primary factors:

  1. Strategy
    The first step in the plan is the identification of problems that need to be addressed and creating a plan to meet goals and objectives associated with them.
  2. Structure
    Leaders then acknowledge the unique challenges and opportunities the structure of their organization brings to change, as well as the way that different departments interact with one another.
  3. Systems
    Assessing the day-to-day activities and the effect the transition would have on them.
  4. Shared Values
    The core values by which the organization runs.
  5. Style
    The way in which leaders adopt and implement changes, and the overall cultural feel of the group.
  6. Staff
    The makeup of the workforce and their capabilities and roles within the company.
  7. Skills
    The core competencies and skills of workers operating within the company.

This model is meant to take all of the above factors into account when creating a change management plan.

 Strengths:
The McKinsey 7S Model is holistic and requires leaders to take an in-depth look at all parts of an organization that can have a positive or negative effect on transitions. It offers a lot of different ways and perspectives on how companies can view change. Each factor (strategy, structure, systems, etc.) are a lens through which leaders can assess the differences. Another helpful part of this model is that each component is given equal weight in importance to the transition. It offers an effective method to diagnose and understand an organization. It provides guidance in organizational change.It combines rational and emotional components.

Weakness:
One of the most significant disadvantages of this model is the fact that all seven different factors being considered are interrelated. This means that if a part of the plan fails in one, other areas can also become impacted. Because of this, the model brings complexity to leaders. Companies using this model have been known to have a higher incidence of failure.

4. Which of the six main approaches to marketing communications have Center Parcs used for their properties? What else could they have used and how can they evaluate the effects of their communication strategies and techniques?

Six main approaches Center Parcs have used for their properties include:

1. Advertising

Advertising can be defined as ‘any paid form of non-personal communication about an organisation, product, service or idea by an identified sponsor.

Advertising decisions include those relating to:

  • The use of the various media (TV, radio, newspapers, magazines).
  • How advertising can be developed for a specific target audience.
  • The use of rational and/or emotional appeals; in particular the use of fear appeals to transmit messages.

2. Sales promotion

Whereas advertising is traditionally associated with long term brand building and can reach a wide audience, particularly with the growth in global media, sales promotion is more often considered a short-term approach to generating sales. Promotional tools include introductory offers, competitions and point of sale promotions.

3. Public relations/publicity

Similar to advertising, publicity is a non-personal form of communication, but here there is no direct payment and no identifiable sponsor. Consequently publicity may also be negative, or adverse, since the organisation, group or individual may not be able to control it. Media advocacy’, which is a term derived from public health, refers to situations where the media are encouraged to cover particular issues and consequently communicate these to the public and/or specific target markets. When Center Parcs first set up in Britain, the English Tourist Board dubbed it ‘the most important innovation in British tourism since the war’.

4. Personal selling

There is a wide range of stakeholders who are involved in social marketing programmes. These include a number of individuals and organisations who will be responsible for providing information and communicating with target audiences. As with all communication there is an issue of source credibility, and the credence which consumers, or potential consumers, give to a particular source is of paramount importance. The role of professionals in many social marketing campaigns is an important one.

5. Direct marketing

This involves direct selling, direct response advertising, telemarketing, etc. and is a rapidly growing medium in the commercial world.

6. Interactive/internet marketing

A distribution channel and communications medium that enables consumers and organisations to communicate in radically different ways through internet. Improvements in technology have dramatically changed the nature of communications and the ways of reaching target markets.

What else could they have used-

Centre parc can use Social networking sites such as facebook, twitter as a forum for discussion and feedback. They can even run multiple campaigns to brand their products by offering incentives to the users of social media. Interest is growing in ‘mobile marketing’ (marketing on mobile phones), as marketers recognize the potential of this medium. Centre Parc can increase the engagement of consumers with its brand by running a campaign offering mobile phone users access to a free gaming where they can allow games to be downloaded so that players can play the game under company’s name logo or highlighting features of their products and services. Viral marketing can be put into picture where consumers can be encouraged to share the games with their friends and relatives by offering incentives and benefits and other rewards. Communications must be developed for distributors/intermediaries as well as the internal market (employees ) and other stakeholders by Centre Parc to grab more opportunities and generate more profit.

How can they evaluate the effects of their communication strategies and techniques:

Approaches to communications evaluation

Centre Parc can use some of the suggested models to evaluate their communication strategies and techniques:

1. The AIDA (attention, interest, desire, action) model

This model can be used by Centre parc in  identifying how and when to communicate during each of the stages as consumers will be using different platforms, engaging at different touch points and requiring different information throughout the stages from various sources.

2. The DAGMAR (defining advertising goals for measured advertising results)

This model can help Centre Parc to provide communications tasks that are specific and measurable using a four-stage approach – awareness, comprehension, conviction and action. The DAGMAR approach involves setting up of specific and measurable objectives for the advertising campaign to check if all objectives are met.

3. ‘Hierarchy of effects’ model (awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction and purchase) is based on the idea that advertising will guide potential consumers through a number of stages that are essential if purchase (or other required behaviour) is to result. The hierarchy represents the progression of learning and decision-making consumer experiences as a result of advertising. This model can help Centre Parc to set up and evaluate a structured series of advertising message objectives for a particular product, to build upon each successive objective until a sale is ultimately made. The objectives of a campaign are (in order of delivery): awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction, and purchase.

There are many issues to consider when thinking about how advertising and other forms of communication works. There are also other factors to consider such as the role of memory and the level of involvement with the product. However, a sequential or stage approach can help Centre Parc to evaluate the role of marketing communications. When evaluating communications it must be remembered that it is the combination of elements of the ‘marketing mix’ and relationship building, working together, that will achieve the overall marketing objectives. Approaches to measuring advertising effectiveness include

Post-tests, such as advertising recall (based on the audience’s memory as to which advertisements they have seen and what they remember about them) and  

Recognition, where the audience is asked, typically for print advertisements, what they have read.

Other approaches are longitudinal, such as tracking studies that measure consumer awareness of advertisements over time as well as any changes in consumer attitudes and preferences.

Sales promotion is easier to evaluate because of its short-term nature and more direct impact on sales.

Other approaches to evaluating advertising, promotions and other appeals are commonly asked in questions at point of sale or enquiry, for example, ‘Where did you hear about this organisation, product, etc.?

 Sales-force evaluation has become increasingly contentious, particularly in relation to its links with bonuses. Bonuses that are based on levels of sales can also have a negative impact on long-term relationship building and thus on organisational image. Consequently, sales-force evaluation measures and related rewards should be considered in the light of organisational objectives, ensuring that both long-term and short-term measures are used. This might include frequencies or ratios relating to number of calls made; orders (value or volume); new business; related expenses; customer satisfaction; and relationship development. As with all communications, the external environment – for example, recessionary pressures and competitor activity – will influence whether objectives are achieved.

Q5 Describe the Sherwood Forest Center Parcs supply chain for goods and services. Which services do you think they are likely to have outsourced?

‘Supply chain’ involves the flow of materials from original supplier to end customer. supply chain management integrates all the activities performed in purchasing, materials management, physical distribution, logistics and customer service, in order to direct them towards satisfying customer needs. The goals of supply chain management are to provide customers with outputs that are right the first time and delivered quickly and punctually at the lowest possible cost.

Sherwood Forest Supply Chain for Goods and Services:

 The Center Parcs provides short breaks in the forest, bringing families together and back to nature with high quality accommodation, a range of outstanding leisure facilities and more than 200 indoor and outdoor activities, all set within a protected and enhanced woodland environment. The 700 villa Sherwood Forest site and a total of 900 units of accommodation; from apartments and penthouses to Lodges and Tree houses along with at the heart of each village is the Subtropical Swimming Paradise, an extensive range of restaurants, cafés and retail outlets, as well as the Aqua Sana Spa. Setting up Sherwood Forest began with thinning the forest. Over 500,000 trees and shrubs were planted, and selected grass and wildflower species were sown. A network of lakes and waterways was created to form a key element of the village. Plants and trees introduced to these areas provided a new habitat that has attracted new life forms. This allows guests to relax amongst a variety of native flora and fauna. Resources being used in the form of input include infrastructure facilities such as accommodation, restaurants, retail outlets, café, staffs Raw materials and inputs for indoor and outdoor activities. Most of the resources are being purchased locally. Staffs are being trained and hired locally to provide comfort to customers. Customers either visit local businesses on their way to or from the Center Parcs village or visit other attractions outside the village.

Supply chain process:

Purchasing

In Central Parc, purchasing is a separate department or function. The activities involved in acquiring material inputs are usually performed by purchasing, which may also be responsible for acquiring other transformed and transforming inputs, information and services. Central parc ensure that inputs are of the right quality, are available when needed and have an appropriate cost. They often deal with suppliers who are located close by or who can themselves demonstrate excellence in supply chain management. Purchasing responsibilities are generally considered to end once the purchased inputs have been delivered.

Materials management

In Central Parcs, Operation heads are responsible for the activities that take place between the delivery of materials by suppliers and their use in the transformation process. They manage the receipt of incoming materials, their storage and handling and their provision to the transformation process. Once the transformation process has taken place, they conduct testing, packaging and storing finished products before they are served to customers.

Outputs of the production process go directly to customers in case of central Parc.

Physical distribution and logistics

Physical distribution is the area concerned with transporting the organisation’s physical outputs, managing the movement of goods and services to customers and clients.

Logistics is an extension of physical distribution management and includes all of the processes involved in the physical distribution, both into (inbound logistics) and from (outbound logistics) the organisation, as well as associated services such as credit and insurance.

Outsourcing:

Central Parc can outsource its infrastructure and engineering works in terms of construction of apartments, lodges, penthouses, swimming pools, plantation of herbs and shrubs and so on. They can focus on their core activities in terms of providing best possible services to its customers to meet their expectations. Interior and designing work of forests should not be outsourced.

Q6 The section ‘Employment in Central Park’ on page 6 explains about the Centre park’s employees’ requirement. Identify 5 costs from this section and classify them into variable, fixed or semi-variable. Give reason for your classification.

 1. Profit share and management bonus schemes

This cost is variable in nature as it depends upon the profit generated in the business. This cost will depend on actual profit earned and on that basis it will be decided and shared among the employees. If profit does not reaches to the predetermined target no sharing will take place.

2. Pension

It is a fixed cost to the company which company needs to deposit on monthly basis in group pension scheme.

3. Discounted breaks – It is variable in nature as it will incur only when employees will take benefit of it.

4. Village discounts – It is variable in nature as it will incur only when employees will take benefit of it or buy products.

 5. Day visitor passes – It is variable in nature as it will incur only when employees will take benefit of it.

6. Free use of Village facilities – It is variable in nature as it will incur only when employees will take benefit of it.

7. A Health Cash Plan Scheme – It is variable in nature as it will incur only when employees will take benefit of it.

8. Life insurance cover – it is semi variable in nature since 2 times is fixed and to make it 4 times there are certain conditions imposed and 4 times cover will be provided only when those conditions will be met.

Q7 What is Centre Parks doing to support the creation and effective functioning of teams? How well do you think they are managing the processes and what else do you think they could be doing?

Central Parc is performing following functions to support creation and effective functioning of team:

Conducting (Thinking directed to the outer world)

Central Parc allows organisation and a logical structure into the way things are to be done. It is establishing appropriate plans, identifying and implementing the correct procedures, and then endeavouring to make sure they are followed. It is ensuring that roles and responsibilities are properly defined and that appropriate resources or skills are available to undertake the work assigned.

Clarifying (Sensing directed to the inner world)

Central Parc has brought clarity to the inner world of information, ideas and understanding. It has expanded its knowledge and collection of experiences, and also looked to the future by envisaging clear goals and clear pathways to achievement of those goals.

Activating (Sensing directed to the outer world)

Central Parc is fulfilling its objectives by getting things done, and getting them done on time. It is action oriented dealing with whatever tasks the current situation presents, and spurring others into action as well. It is using its experience and utilising tools or processes as per their knowledge. It is creating an immediate impact on things, injecting a sense of urgency, and aiming to achieve clear goals and tangible results.

Exploring (Intuition directed to the outer world)

Central Parc is promoting exploration of new and better ways of doing things, to uncover hidden potential in people, things or situations. It is break new ground, and is often looking one step beyond the current situation to pursue unexplored avenues, until all the possibilities have been exhausted. It is challenge the status quo and experiment with the introduction of change, to see if the situation can be improved or new potential can be uncovered by opening for whole year looking at the British climate.

Harmonising (Feeling directed to the outer world)

Central Parc is creating harmony in the world around them, by building rapport with people, creating a positive team atmosphere, looking after people’s welfare, motivating people and/or providing a service to the satisfaction of others. It is valuing people’s contributions, seeking to develop the role that others play, and investing a lot of effort in building positive relationships.

 Analysing (Thinking directed to the inner world)

Central Parc has provided explanation of how and why things happen. It has brought structure and organisation into the inner world of ideas and understanding. It has analysed things, formulated hypotheses and explanations of how they will function, and gather evidence to assess how true those explanations are. It has produced mental models that replicate how particular aspects of the world works, and it has tried to understand the full complexity of any situation.

Central Parc should also perform:

Campaigning (Feeling directed to the inner world)

It should also Campaign for thoughts, ideas, and beliefs. It should make sure that urgency and priority is understood.

Innovating (Intuition directed to the inner world)

Central Parc should use its imagination to create new and different ideas and perspectives. It should develop long-term vision and demonstrate an apparent understanding of what cannot be clearly known.

1. Describe the following and explain how the Sherwood Forest Center Parcs village STEEPLE and stakeholder analysis (Page 4, 46-52) affected the decisions related to each one of the following:

a.the marketing mix – Marketing book Page 26-28

b.the organisational culture and key values – Page 33-45

c.the sources of power top management would need to base the development and nurturing of the chosen organisational culture

Marketing mix refers to putting the right product or a combination thereof in the place, at the right time, and at the right price. Components of marketing mix includes

1. Product

A product is an item that is built or produced to satisfy the needs of a certain group of people. Center Parcs UK offers weekend, (Friday to Monday) or midweek (Monday to Friday) breaks. It offers accommodations, retail outlets, café, spa, swimming pools and multiple indoor and outdoor activities to keep their customers engaged and give them maximum level of satisfaction. Services have been designed and developed in such a way that it suits the needs of the customers. They have created the right product mix by expanding and diversifying the depth of their product line.

2.Price

The price of the product is basically the amount that a customer pays for to enjoy it. Pricing always help shape the perception of product in consumers eyes. Low pricing usually means an inferior good in the consumers’ eyes as they compare it to a competitor. Consequently, prices too high will make the costs outweigh the benefits in customers’ eyes, and they will therefore value their money over the product. Centre Parc has considered and examined the perceived value that the product offers. Accordingly, they have set its pricing for various products and services they are offering.

3. Place

Placement or distribution is a very important part of the product mix definition. Center Parc has chosen forest land to render its services which are located in rural areas. Lush green forests increase the visibility of its tourism services to its clients where it offers breaks in jungle area in socially ecological and viable environment.

4. Promotion

In order to promote its products, Parc has followed Integrated marketing communication approach to make people about its services and attract more and more people to become their customers and enjoy its offering in their short breaks.

5. People

Employees at centre Parc is locally hired people who have knowledge of forest areas and nearby localities. Less or no transfer policy is being adopted to avoid discomfort to customers and to employees.

II. Organisational Culture and values

Organisational Culture is the pattern of shared beliefs and values that give members of an institution meaning, and provide them with the rules for behavior in their organization. It plays a powerful role in supporting missions and strategies. Edgar Schein’s model underlines three types of culture within an organization. The basic premise behind this model is that artifacts, values, and assumptions integrate into a comprehensive whole that is organizational culture. These three types represent different aspects of an organization’s culture, growing less tangible and more complex as it moves from the top-down.

Artifacts: refers to the tangible artifacts that reveal specific cultural predispositions such as the type of people employed (personalities, levels of education, etc.), traditions and rituals, technology, architecture, logos, heroes, stories, myths, and so on. Central Parc hires Local people, train them to perform jobs, offers them multiple benefits in terms of profit and gain sharing, pension plans and other discounts and offerings. It creates sound socio ecological environment where customers can relax and enjoy their breaks.

Values: pertain largely to the ethics embedded in an organization. What does the organization believe and stand for? These values are usually openly communicated with the public and demonstrated internally by employees. For example, a non-profit organization that aims to mitigate poverty has the values of charity, understanding, empowerment, and empathy deeply ingrained within the organization. Central parc work culture as described by it is:“Center Parcs’ employees have one thing in common: we come together to work hard and with a sense of purpose, bringing the best of ourselves to create wonderful and memorable experiences for our guests in the great outdoors.

Assumptions: is more difficult to deduce through observation, according to Schein. These describe the tacit assumptions that infect the way communication occurs and individuals behave. They assumptions are often unconscious. For example, employees may act on a cultural assumption to avoid risk wherever possible without receiving any directives to do so. High power distance is another example, where employees believe they should show a high degree of deference to their superiors, even though they were not told to do so specifically. In Central Parcs local people are hired with the main motive to keep the values, rituals and norms of that place intact and participate in decision making in order to improve the quality of services and offerings to its customers.

III. The sources of power top management would need to base the development and nurturing of the chosen organisational culture:

The Center Parcs business is managed in the UK by the Board of Directors, which comprises of two executive directors (the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer) and representatives of its principal shareholder. The Board provides leadership and sets the strategy. It is also responsible for overseeing implementation of the strategy, risk management, financial performance and corporate governance. Operational oversight is the responsibility of the Operating Board, which is made up of the two executive directors and four members of senior management (the Development and Construction Director, the Sales and Marketing Director, the HR and Commercial Services Director and the Operations Director). The Operating Board is the main day-to-day decision-making forum. It implements the strategy and has responsibility for ensuring that the business complies with all applicable statutory, regulatory and governance requirements.  To allow the Board of Directors and the Operating Board to operate effectively, they have delegated authority to the Risk Committee, the Fire, Health and Safety Steering Committee (FHSSC) and, following new data protection laws, the Data Protection Governance Committee.


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