Comparative analysis of Organisational Culture, Design & Structure of JCBPPI, GLOBSYN, M&M and ONGC

Organisational culture

1.UNIQUENESSThe culture at JCBPPI is marked by unique characteristic of “Sense –Of – Urgency’ that prevails seamlessly through entire JCB Group.Globsyn strongly believes in ‘Taking People to the Next Level’. Globsyn is a problem solver with an unwavering passion for performance.The unique aspects of culture in the organization is philosophy of ‘Rise’. Three important pillars Of Mahindra & Mahindra’s culture is 1. Alternative thinking 2. Driving positive change, and 3. Accepting No limits.creativity and out of box thinking is the foundation upon which culture of ONGC prevails.
2.Changes to be madeNeed for a unique customer centric culture that shall be very different from JCB culture as a market leader organization as the Head Office is now.Need for an employee centric culture in order to increase the satisfaction level of the employees and the organisation has adopted this change too.No changes required to be made as they continuously work on bringing and adopting positive changes to increase the level of efficiency.Need to empower, act as a global thinker and provide opportunities for initiatives creativity and innovation.
3.Organisational set upInformal Set Ups Dominate. 90% of the work in and b/w departments is done on telephonic / direct meeting basis and mails and memos are limited to those absolutely necessary to record keeping.  Informal Set Ups Dominate. More than 70 % of the work in and b/w departments is done on telephonic / direct meeting basis and mails and memos are limited to those absolutely necessary to record keeping.  Mix of formal and informal set ups prevail. As per the requirement of the scenario, formal rules are followed and for routine work they show little endeavor to go on writing work and prefer oral communication.Highly formalized and organized set ups. Proper written communication is followed in order to perform the tasks of the organisation. Circulars, notices, tenders, mails and memos are issued to keep the record of all the happenings in the organisation.
4.Work life balanceStrictly adhere work life balance, provide regular holidays to employees, organize family trips and entertainment events, maintains 5 days working,As compared to other organizations’, little focus is on maintaining work life balance. However, the organisation endeavors to fulfill the casual needs of the employees with regard to their personal matters in terms of providing financial and other assistance.Highest priority by maintaining 5 days working, regular holidays, keeps less work load on Friday in order to ensure happy weekends for their employees.Highest priority by maintaining 5 days working, 40 days leave with pay, taking care of family members by providing insurance cover to families and many other facilities in order to secure the social and personal life of the employees.
5. Gender relationshipDespite of less no. of female employees the culture is well adopted for women to work in this organisation.Friendly environment for women to work in this organisation. A bit of sexual discrimination prevails in the organisation.Both male and female employees are considered equal and given equal opportunities to work, grow and prosper in the organisation. However at lower levels, a sense of discrimination prevails.Women employees working at higher position get respect however,females at lower level face problems with respect to gender inequality.

Organisational Design

1.Span of ControlNarrow for resources and wide for position power.Narrow; it flows top-downcentralized in nature. ‘Centre of Excellence’ for each of the sub-function of HRWide for both resources and position power.
2. Span of AccountabilityNarrow -Low standardization with tradeoffs possible.Standardized.At bottom level narrower. At middle and top level, wider span of accountability.At bottom level higher. At middle and top level, standardization with tradeoffs possible.
3. Span of Influence:Wide, Encourage cross departmental interventions , has dual reporting line relationships .Narrow, Single reporting lines.greater span of influence, by virtue of their role & responsibility in the organization.  Wide with multiple reporting lines.
4. Span of Supportwide for inherent need to integrate bothvertically with Corporate team and horizontally with other department heads.Individualized rewards.Wide span of support becomes vital since, HR plays a key role as a strategic Business Partner of the organisation.  Narrow as HR employees perform more of administrative functions.

Organisational Structure

1. SizeTotal no. of employees is 48. Turnover : INR 70 Cr. As in 2016 &expected to cross 100 Cr in 2017-18. HR at JCBPPI is a 02 person department with functional line relationship at JCB Corporate Head Office In India.  Total strength of the employees is 41. Revenue turnover: Rs. 9 Crores. Two person HR department with functional relationship.  The M & M Group consists of 154 subsidiaries, 8 Joint Ventures and 16 Associates. Total Revenue of M & M Group for the FY 2016 is 17.8 billion US $., i.e. Rs. 116245 Crore. This multinational group, Head Quarter based at Mumbai, Mahindra provides employment opportunities to over 200,000 people in over 100 countries.Being the largest profit making PSU in the country, it is spread across 17 countries and has employed more than 40,000 people. Management and functioning of such a huge government owned company is divided among many functional levels that ensure its smooth functioning, continuous growth and expansion.
2. Authority relationshipHR manager reports to the Business Head at JCBPPI functionally , a clear dotted line relationship exists with the HR Department at the Corporate Head Office situated locally to ensure HR functional accuracyHR Executive reports to HR manager who in turn directly reports to managing director of the company.centralized HR processes in order to have standardization across function to give uniform experience across all the business units spread over different geography.Secondary level managers are directly under the control of apex level delegates. staff levels are supervised and controlled by the supervisors.
3. Decision makingall decisions pertaining to JCBPPI can be taken internally by HR Manager, decisions involving policy change and interpretation needs corporate approval .All decisions are taken by HR manager with consent of managing director of the company. However, HR manager has autonomy in taking decisions with regard to routine work.functional HR heads and Business HR Heads are encouraged to participate in strategy designing, conceptualization of initiatives which enables them to contribute their thoughts and ideas also, help them facilitate business related decisions.ONGC is headed by a Director General who is advised by an expert advisory committee in all major decisions. He holds all the power to take major decisions and is generally directly appointed by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India. These are the highest level of positions to be acquired in the company.
4. Organisational hierarchyFlat hierarchyFlat .Tall. All five managerial levels of hierarchy prevail in M&M.Flat. Three levels of hierarchy apex level, secondary level and staff level prevsil in the organisation.
5. Work SpecialisationAll works related to HR are performed by HR manager and HR executives.Recruitment is done by HR executive. Other HR activities are performed by HR manager.Centralized HR processes in order to have standardization across function to give uniform experience across all the business units spread over different geography.The people at apex level perform functions like planning, controlling and supervision. They do not have any ground work functions, although they may be controlling all departments with those functions under them. Secondary level are responsible for the daily functioning of each department.staff level take care of all other menial jobs requiring manual labor.
6. Type of structureFunctional line structure.Functional structure.Mechanistic / functional structure’ at macro level and organic structure as per the scenario.functional organisational structure
7. Advantages of type of structureTends to simplify and clarify authority, responsibility and accountability relationships; Promotes fast decision making and Simple to understand.   A line structure tends to simplify and clarify responsibility, authority and accountability relationships; promotes fast decision making and flexibility; managements and employees have greater closeness.  group decisions are better than individual decisions; Better interaction among members leads to better co-ordination of activities; Group discussion may lead to creative thinking.  Functional specialization leads to many advantages like best managerial decision; minimizing cost of operation and increasing efficiency and productivity of the enterprise; Facilitates growth and expansion.  
8. Disadvantages of type of structureImproved speed and flexibility may not offset the lack of specialized knowledge; There is a tendency to become overly dependent on the few key people who  perform numerous jobs.  As the firm grows larger, line organisation becomes more ineffective; Managers may have to become experts in too many fields.    delay in decisions; consume more time and hence more expensive;  Group action may lead to compromise and indecision ; ‘Buck passing’ may result.  Difficulty in Interdepartmental Coordination; creates conflict of interest; Difficulty in Fixing Responsibility; Lack of Co-ordination; High Clerical Costs; Chances for Indiscipline.